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People who eat more than they need to cover their nutrient needs are likely to become overweight or obese. Overweight means that the person is too heavy for their height. Their weight is above the range of weights of healthy people.
Factors are responsible for obesity :
1. Genetic factors: Genetic inheritance influences a persons chance of becoming obese by 50-70%. If both parents are obese, the chance in children is 80%.
2. Age and sex : It can occur at any and in either sex as long as the Person is in a positive energy balance.
3. Eating habits : Nibbling between meals is a potential cause for obesity. Excessive consumption of relatively cheap carbohydrate-rich foods such as rice and potato is another predisposing factor. It is the total intake of calories rather than the frequency of meals that causes obesity.
4. Physical activity : Obesity is more common after the age of 35 when physical activity decreases and food consumption either remains the same or may increase with improved economic status.
5. Endocrine factors : Dysfunction of the thyroid and pituitary may result in obesity.
6. Trauma to hypothalamus : Damage to hypothalamus after head injury may result in obesity as the hypothalamus is not able to regulate appetite or satiety.
7. Psychological factors : Food become the focal point for people who are bored, lonely, discontented or depressed, Leading to obesity.
Treatment of obesity :
1. Reducing weight : Losing weight requires careful planning in diet. Reduced intake and regular loss of fat from body in the form of physical activity play a major role as a person grows old. A slight change in ideal weight is normal.
2. Exercise : Generally obese persons lead sedentary lives. A low calorie diet with moderate exercise such as walking would be the best in which the timespan can be gradually increased. The grade 1 type of obese patient can also take part in outdoor games like tennis, badminton, swimming, cycling, etc. Among housewives, household activity like mopping, sweeping the floor, gardening, etc.also forms a pad of good exercise.
3. Drugs : Drugs usually act as appetite suppressors which have their own side effects and are no substitute to low calorie diets.
4. Liposuction : This is a surgical procedure of removal of excess of fat but is associated with recurrence and a few complications.
5. Gastric placation : By placing surgical staples, across the upper portion of stomach due to which intake capacity of food is reduced.